* - Indicates undergraduate author



  • K. Sykes and R. J. White, “Effects of Nucleic Acid Structural Heterogeneity on the Electrochemistry of Tethered Redox Molecules,” Langmuir, 2022, ASAP Article, Just Accepted.

  • A. Barua, R. J. White, K. D. Leedy, V. Chidambaran and R. Jha, "Ultra-Low Power Schottky Barrier TFT-Based Neurotransmitter Detection and Regenerative Studies," IEEE Sensors Journal, 2022, 22, 7550-7561.

  •  I. Belmonte and R. J. White “3-D printed microfluidics for rapid prototyping and testing of electrochemical, aptamer-based sensor devices under flow conditions,” Anal. Chim. Acta. 2022, 1192, 339337


  • Kiana S. Sykes and Ryan J. White "Measuring Practical Reversibility of Surface-Bound DNA for Mechanistic Insight into Folding-Based Sensors," J. Electrochem. Soc. 168 116511.

  • K. S. Sykes and R. J. White, “Nucleic Acid Identity, Structure, and Flexibility Affect the Electrochemical Signal of Tethered Redox Molecules upon Biopolymer Collapse,” Langmuir, 2021, 42, 12466–12475.

  • V. Vogiazi, A. A. de la Cruz, E. A. Varughese, W. R. Heineman, R. J. White, and D. D. Dionysiou, “Sensitive Electrochemical Detection of Microcystin-LR in Water Samples Via Target-Induced Displacement of Aptamer Associated [Ru(NH3)6]3+,” ACS ES&T, 2021,  11, 1597–1605.

  • G. R. Dangel, H. Kumakli, C. E. Rahm, R. J. White, N. T. Alvarez, “Nanoelectrode Ensembles Consisting of Carbon Nanotubes.” Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, 8399.

  • E. A. Hussein and R. J. White, “Silver Nanoneedle Probes Enable Sustained DC Current, Single-Channel Resistive Pulse Nanopore Sensing,” Anal. Chem. 2021, 93, 11568-11575

  • K. R. Wehmeyer, Ryan J. White, Peter T. Kissinger, William R. Heineman, “Electrochemical Affinity Assays/Sensors: Brief History and Current Status,” Ann. Rev. Anal. Chem., 2021 14, 109-131

  • A. Barua, R. J. White, K. D. Leedy, and R. Jha, “Ultra-low-power neurotransmitter sensor using novel “click” chemistry aptamer-functionalized deep subthreshold Schottky barrier IGZO TFT.” MRS Communications, 2021, 11, 233–243

  • Z. Yuan, S. Das, R. A. Lazenby, R. J. White, and Y. C. Park, “Repetitive drug releases from light-activatable micron-sized liposomes,” Coll. Surf. A., 2021, 625, 126778-

  • V. Vogiazi, A. de la Cruz, W. R. Heineman, R. J. White*, and D. D. Dionysiou*, “Effects of Experimental Conditions on the Signaling Fidelity of Impedance-Based Nucleic Acid Sensors” Anal. Chem.  2021, 93, 812-819, *Co-corresponding authors



  • Y. Wu, S. Ali, and R. J. White, “Use of Electrocatalysis for Differentiating DNA Polymorphisms and Enhancing the Sensitivity of Electrochemical Nucleic Acid-Based Sensors with Covalent Redox Tags—Part II,” ACS Sens.2020, 5, 12, 3842–3849.

  • Y. Wu, S. Ali, and R. J. White, “Electrocatalytic Mechanism for Improving Sensitivity and Specificity of Electrochemical Nucleic Acid-Based Sensors with Covalent Redox Tags—Part I,” ACS Sens. 2020, 12, 3833–3841

  • K. Shoji, R. Kawano, and R. J. White, “Analysis of membrane protein de-insertion-associated currents with nanoneedle-supported bilayers to discover pore formation mechanisms,” Langmuir, 2020, 36, 10012–10021.

  • K. Shoji, R. Kawano, and R. J. White, “Recessed Ag/AgCl Microelectrode-Supported Lipid Bilayer for Nanopore Sensing,” Anal. Chem., 2020, 92, 10856–10862.

  • S. Das, R. A. Lazenby, Z. Yuan, R. J. White, and Y. C. Park, “Effect of Laser Irradiation on Reversibility and Drug Release of Light-Activatable Drug-Encapsulated Liposomes,” Langmuir  2020, 36, 3573-3582.



  • K. S. Sykes, L. F. L. Oliveira, G. Stan, and R. J. White, "Electrochemical Studies of Cation Condensation-Induced Collapse of Surface-Bound DNA," Langmuir, 2019, 35, 12962-12970. Click here to learn more.

  • X. Zhang, R. Lazenby, Y. Wu, and R. J. White, "Electrochromic, Closed-Bipolar Electrodes Employing Aptamer-Based Recognition for Direct Colorimetric Sensing Visualization," Anal. Chem., 2019, 91, 11467-11473. Click here to learn more.

  • M. Santos-Cancel, L. W. Simpson, J. B. Leach and R. J. White, "Direct, Real-Time Detection of Adenosine Triphosphate Release from Astrocytes in 3-Dimensional Culture Using an Integrated Electrochemical, Aptamer-Based Sensor", ACS Chem. Neurosci., 2019 Just Accepted . Click here to learn more.

  • K. Shoji, R. Kawano and R. J. White, "Spatially Resolved Chemical Detection with a Nanoneedle-Probe-Supported Biological Nanopore," ACS Nano, 2019, 13, 2606-2614 . Click here to learn more.

  • Y. Wu, B. Midinov* and R. J. White, "An Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Insulin," ACS Sens., 2019, 4, 498-503. Click here to learn more.




  • R. A. Lazenby and R. J. White, "Advances and Perspectives in Chemical Imaging in Cellular Environments Using Electrochemical Methods," Chemosensors, 2018, 6, 24. Click here to learn more.

  • M. Santos-Cancel, R. A. Lazenby and R. J. White, "Rapid Two-Millisecond Interrogation of Electrochemical, Aptamer-Based Sensor Response Using Intermittent Pulse Amperometry," ACS Sens., 2018, 3, 1203–1209. Click here to learn more.

  • R. A. Lazenby, F. C. Macazo, R. F. Wormsbecher, and R. J. White, "Quantitative Framework for Stochastic Nanopore Sensors Using Multiple Channels," Anal. Chem., 2018, 90, 903–911. Click here to learn more.




  • M. Santos-Cancel and R. J. White, "Collagen Membranes with Ribonuclease Inhibitors for Long-Term Stability of Electrochemical, Aptamer-Based Sensors Employing RNA," Anal. Chem., 2017, 89, 5598–5604. Click here to learn more.


  • L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes, F. C. Macazo, B. Gutierrez*, J. Lottermoser*, J. Liu, and R. J. White, "Reagentless, Structure-Switching, Electrochemical Aptamer-Based Sensors," Ann. Rev. Anal. Chem., 2016, 9, 163-181. Click here to learn more.

  • F. C. Macazo and R. J. White, "Bio-Inspired Protein Channel-Based Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (Bio-SICM) for Simultaneous Conductance and Specific Molecular Imaging," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 2793-2801. Click here to learn more. Featured in JACS editorial on Nanoreactors.


  • L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes, E. P. Glaser*, and Ryan J. White, "Heterogenous Electrochemical, Aptamer-Based Sensor Surfaces for Controlled Sensor Response," Langmuir, 2015, 31, 6563–6569. Click here to learn more

  • L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes and R. J. White, "Rationally Designing Aptamer Sequences with Reduced Affinity for Controlled Sensor Performance," Sensors, 2015, 15, 7754-7767. Special Issue: Smart Materials for Switchable Sensors. Click here to learn more.

  • F. C. Macazo, R. L. Karpel, and R. J. White, "Monitoring Cooperative Binding using Electrochemical DNA-Based Sensors," Langmuir, 2015, 31, 868-875. Click here to learn more.


  • J. Liu, S. Wagan*, M. Dávila Morris, J. Taylor*, and R. J. White, "Achieving Reproducible Performance of Electrochemical, Folding Aptamer-Based Sensors on Microelectrodes: Challenges and Prospects," Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 11417-11424. Click here to learn more.

  • F. C. Macazo and R. J. White, "Monitoring Charge Flux to Quantify Unusual Ligand-Induced Ion Channel Activity for use in Biological Nanopore-Based Sensors," Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 5519-5525. Click here to learn more.

  • J. Liu, M. Dávila Morris, F. C. Macazo, L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes, and R. J. White, "The Current and Future Role of Aptamers in Electroanalysis," Invited Critical Review, J. Electrochem. Soc., 2014, 161, H301-H313. Click here to learn more.

  • L. R. Schoukroun-Barnes, S. Wagan*, and R. J. White, "Enhancing the Analytical Performance of Electrochemical RNA Aptamer-Based Sensors for Sensitive Detection of Aminoglycoside Antibiotics," Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 1131-1137. Click here to learn more.


  • B. S. Ferguson, D. A. Hoggarth, D. Maliniak, K. Ploense, R. J. White, N. Woodward, K. Hsieh, A. J. Bonham, M. Eisenstein, T. E. Kippin, K. W. Plaxco, and H. T. Soh, "Real-Time, Aptamer-Based Tracking of Circulating Therapeutic Agents in Living Animals," Sci. Transl. Med., 2013,  5, 213ra165. Click here to learn more.

  • K. C. Huang and R. J. White, "Random Walk on a Leash: A Simple Single Molecule Diffusion Model for Surface-Tethered Redox Molecules with Flexible Linkers," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 12808-12817. Click here to learn more.

  • L. Schoukroun-Barnes, S. Wagan, J. Liu, J.B. Leach, and R. J. White, "Biocompatible Hydrogel Membranes for the Protection of RNA Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Sensors," Proc. SPIE 8719, 2013, Smart Biomedical and Physiological Sensor Technology X, 87190I. Click here to learn more.

Other Papers